Diamonds From Ashes by Alex Vaune
The law of conservation of mass - Todd Ramsey
History of the Atomic Theory
Antoine Lavoisier , in full Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier , born August 26, , Paris, France—died May 8, , Paris , prominent French chemist and leading figure in the 18th-century chemical revolution who developed an experimentally based theory of the chemical reactivity of oxygen and coauthored the modern system for naming chemical substances. Having also served as a leading financier and public administrator before the French Revolution , he was executed with other financiers during the revolutionary terror. Antoine Lavoisier determined that oxygen was a key substance in combustion , and he gave the element its name. However, he devoted much of his time to lectures on physics and chemistry and to working with leading scientists. Antoine Lavoisier was born and raised in Paris.
It is generally accepted that Lavoisier's great accomplishments in chemistry stem largely from his changing the science from a qualitative to a quantitative one. Lavoisier is most noted for his discovery of the role oxygen plays in combustion. He recognized and named oxygen and hydrogen , and opposed the phlogiston theory. Lavoisier helped construct the metric system , wrote the first extensive list of elements , and helped to reform chemical nomenclature. He predicted the existence of silicon  and was also the first to establish that sulfur was an element rather than a compound.
Democritus BC First proposed the existence of an ultimate particle. Used the word "atomos" to describe this particle. Aristotle BC was a proponent of the continuum. He believed in the four elements of air, earth, water and fire. Aristotle felt that regardless of t he number of times you cut a form of matter in half, you would always have a smaller piece of that matter.
The atomic, microscopic way of looking at matter is actually a fairly new development. The United States has already celebrated its two-hundredth birthday, whereas the atomic theory is only about years old. None of the Founding Fathers—not even Benjamin Franklin, the most scientific of them—thought about matter in terms of atoms. English translation, Neither, for that matter, did the man whose experiments and ideas led directly to the theory itself. Antoine Lavoisier  was born in , the same year as Thomas Jefferson. The son of a wealthy French lawyer, he was well educated and became a successful businessman, gentleman farmer, economist, and social reformer, as well as the leading chemist of his day.