WAIS-IV Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-4th Edition: Administration and Scoring Manual by David WechslerDavid Wex Wechsler (January 12, 1896 – May 2, 1981) was a leading American psychologist. He developed well-known intelligence scales, such as the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC).
Wechsler was born in a family in Lespezi, Romania, and immigrated with his parents to the United States as a child. He studied at the City College of New York and Columbia University, where he earned his masters degree in 1917 and his Ph.D. in 1925 under the direction of Robert S. Woodworth. During World War I he worked with the United States Army to develop psychological tests to screen new draftees while studying under Charles Spearman and Karl Pearson.
After short stints at various locations (including five years in private practice), Wechsler became chief psychologist at Bellevue Psychiatric Hospital in 1932, where he stayed until 1967. He died in 1981, his psychological tests already being highly respected.
Wechsler is best known for his intelligence tests. He was one of the most influential advocates of the role of nonintellective factors in testing. He emphasized that factors other than intellectual ability are involved in intelligent behavior. Wechsler objected to the single score offered by the 1937 Binet scale. Although his test did not directly measure nonintellective factors, it took these factors into careful account in its underlying theory. The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) was developed first in 1939 and then called the Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Test. From these he derived the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) in 1949 and the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI) in 1967. Wechsler originally created these tests to find out more about his patients at the Bellevue clinic and he found the then-current Binet IQ test unsatisfactory. The tests are still based on his philosophy that intelligence is the global capacity to act purposefully, to think rationally, and to deal effectively with [ones] environment (cited in Kaplan & Saccuzzo, p. 256).
The Wechsler scales introduced many novel concepts and breakthroughs to the intelligence testing movement. First, he did away with the quotient scores of older intelligence tests (the Q in I.Q.). Instead, he assigned an arbitrary value of 100 to the mean intelligence and added or subtracted another 15 points for each standard deviation above or below the mean the subject was. While not rejecting the concept of global intelligence (as conceptualized by his teacher Charles Spearman), he divided the concept of intelligence into two main areas: verbal and performance (non-verbal) scales, each evaluated with different subtests.
The WAIS is today the most commonly administered psychological test (Kaplan & Sacuzzo, 2009). The tests are currently updated approximately every ten years to compensate for the Flynn effect.
Wechsler Memory Scale
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale—Fourth Edition (WAIS–IV)
The current Wechsler scales for assessing the intelligence of adults Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale — 4th ed. The very first test published by Dr. David Wechsler in was the Wechsler—Bellevue Intelligence Scale WB that introduced several major changes to the field of intellectual assessment that had been dominated by the well-established Stanford—Binet test, first published at the turn of the twentieth century in France. Progressing from the original WB are the now well-known Wechsler intelligence Skip to main content Skip to table of contents.
The Wechsler-Bellevue tests were innovative in the s because they gathered tasks created for nonclinical purposes for administration as a "clinical test battery". The WBIS was composed of subtests that could be found in various other intelligence tests of the time, such as Robert Yerkes ' army testing program and the Binet - Simon scale. This revised edition did not provide new validity data, but used the data from the original WAIS; however new norms were provided, carefully stratified. Included six tests and it also provided two subindexes; perceptual organization and processing speed. Two tests; Picture Arrangement and Object Assembly were not included in the indexes. Object Assembly is not included in the PIQ.
Data collection for the next version WAIS 5 began in and is expected to end in spring However, these individual elements were not entirely independent, but were all interrelated. His argument, in other words, is that general intelligence is composed of various specific and interrelated functions or elements that can be individually measured. This theory differed greatly from the Binet scale which, in Wechsler's day, was generally considered the supreme authority with regard to intelligence testing. A drastically revised new version of the Binet scale, released in , received a great deal of criticism from David Wechsler after whom the original Wechsler—Bellevue Intelligence scale and the modern Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale IV are named. These criticisms of the Binet test helped produce the Wechsler—Bellevue scale, released in While this scale has been revised resulting in the present day WAIS-IV , many of the original concepts Wechsler argued for, have become standards in psychological testing , including the point-scale concept and the performance-scale concept.