SRIM - The Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter by Ziegler J et al
Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter
SRIM : the stopping and range of ions in matter
In the interaction between charged particles and matter, the stopping power or the average energy loss per unit path length plays an important role in many fields such as impurity atom implantation in producing semiconductor devices, structure analysis of solid targets by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy RBS , plasma-first wall interactions in a nuclear fusion reactor, and in many others. Generally, there are two contributions to stopping power: the interaction of incident particles with target electrons the electronic stopping power, mostly at high energy , and the interaction with target nuclei the so-called "nuclear" stopping power, mostly at low energy. For electron and positron projectiles, there is no "nuclear" stopping, but the energy loss due to bremsstrahlung is also quite important. Studies of the electronic stopping power started at the beginning of the 20th century. The first classical calculation of the energy loss of energetic particles was made by Bohr, The first quantum mechanical treatment was by Bethe, Another important quantity is the range of the charged particle in matter.
SRIM Textbook. Historical Review. Download SRIM Details of SRIM 3. Install Problems.
The SRIM textbook covers the physical phenomena associated with the penetration of energetic ions into matter. It is primarily concerned with the quantitative evaluation of how ions lose energy into matter and the final distribution of these ions after they stop within the target. Also considered are the first order effects of the atoms on solids, particularly the electronic excitation of the atoms, the displacement of lattice atoms by energetic collisions lattice damage and the production of plasmons and phonons within the solid by the passing ions. No evaluation is made of thermal effects in the solid, especially redistribution of lattice atoms or implanted ions by thermal or vacancy induced diffusions. The scientific literature contains a large amount of experimentally determined stopping powers and ion range distributions. These are not, however, so accurate or dense that direct interpolation to other systems is usually possible.