The Fall of the Ottomans: The Great War in the Middle East by Eugene RoganIn 1914 the Ottoman Empire was depleted of men and resources after years of war against Balkan nationalist and Italian forces. But in the aftermath of the assassination in Sarajevo, the powers of Europe were sliding inexorably toward war, and not even the Middle East could escape the vast and enduring consequences of one of the most destructive conflicts in human history. The Great War spelled the end of the Ottomans, unleashing powerful forces that would forever change the face of the Middle East.
In The Fall of the Ottomans, award-winning historian Eugene Rogan brings the First World War and its immediate aftermath in the Middle East to vivid life, uncovering the often ignored story of the regions crucial role in the conflict. Bolstered by German money, arms, and military advisors, the Ottomans took on the Russian, British, and French forces, and tried to provoke Jihad against the Allies in their Muslim colonies. Unlike the static killing fields of the Western Front, the war in the Middle East was fast-moving and unpredictable, with the Turks inflicting decisive defeats on the Entente in Gallipoli, Mesopotamia, and Gaza before the tide of battle turned in the Allies favor. The great cities of Baghdad, Jerusalem, and, finally, Damascus fell to invading armies before the Ottomans agreed to an armistice in 1918.
The postwar settlement led to the partition of Ottoman lands between the victorious powers, and laid the groundwork for the ongoing conflicts that continue to plague the modern Arab world. A sweeping narrative of battles and political intrigue from Gallipoli to Arabia, The Fall of the Ottomans is essential reading for anyone seeking to understand the Great War and the making of the modern Middle East.
Blood and Oil: The Middle East in World War I
How World War One Changed the Politics of the Middle East
The Middle East was largely controlled by the Ottoman Empire before World War One — a dominance that had prevailed for half a millennium. But although the Ottomans still ruled over what is now Iraq, Lebanon, Syria, Palestine, Israel, Jordan and parts of Saudi Arabia in , the empire was in decline and had been for decades. France had been making headway in the Middle East long before World War One, first annexing Algeria from the Ottomans in and then Tunisia in It had also been extending its influence in Lebanon and Syria. Closer to the war, Italy also made gains, seizing Libya in But there was another European power that had been establishing a far greater foothold in the region — Britain. The Middle East was important to Britain because of its geographical location.
Overlain by subsequent conflicts and decades of bitter contestation, the legacies of the wartime experience continue to reverberate long after the conflict passed into history in Europe. With the Middle East in the throes of renewed political turmoil and having experienced decades of regional and international crises, many deriving from the decisions taken after the World War I, the complicated legacies of the war may not immediately be apparent but are nonetheless highly relevant. A parallel may be drawn with the divided Europe up until , where the ramifications of the World War II remained highly visible across multiple generations and made it difficult to establish historical distance from events whose legacy continued to resonate decades after. In his post-war memoirs, Britain's acting Civil Commissioner in Baghdad, Arnold Wilson, recalled how the looming end of hostilities led him to urge "every effort … to score as heavily as possible on the Tigris before the whistle blew". Thus, the city of Mosul, widely and correctly believed to be in the heartland of the richest oilfields in Mesopotamia, was occupied on November 10, This may have been one day before the end of the war in Europe, but it was 11 days after the Armistice of Mudros and it signalled a start of the clash of competing visions for translating wartime gains into peacetime. While the Treaty of Versailles signed with a vanquished Germany on June 28, the fifth anniversary of the assassination in Sarajevo of Archduke Franz Ferdinand that triggered the slide to war in is by far the most well-known outcome of the post-war peace conferences, four other treaties also were formulated to address different regional aspects of the conflict.
The partitioning was planned in several agreements made by the Allied Powers early in the course of World War I ,  notably the Sykes-Picot Agreement. As world war loomed, the Ottoman Empire sought protection but was rejected by Britain, France, and Russia , and finally formed the Ottoman—German Alliance. The partitioning of the Ottoman Empire after the war led to the rise in the Middle East of Western powers such as Britain and France and brought the creation of the modern Arab world and the Republic of Turkey. Resistance to the influence of these powers came from the Turkish national movement but did not become widespread in the post-Ottoman states until after World War II. The forcible carving out of nations like Iraq from three disparate provinces of the Ottoman empire , Palestine, and forcible division of Syria along communal lines is thought by many analysts to have been a part of the larger strategy of ensuring infighting in the middle east, thus necessitating the role of Western colonial powers at that time Britain, France and Italy as peace brokers and arms suppliers. The Turkish War of Independence forced the Western European powers to return to the negotiating table before the treaty could be ratified. One unresolved issue , the dispute between the Kingdom of Iraq and the Republic of Turkey over the former province of Mosul , was later negotiated under the League of Nations in
The partition of the Ottoman Empire was a political event that occurred after World War I and the The partitioning of the Ottoman Empire after the war led to the rise in the Middle East of Western powers .. in , after the withdrawal of Ottoman troops to the pre-World War I border as a result of the Armistice of Mudros.
roger stoddard cause of death
Regional Thematic Articles
In , the Middle East was largely controlled by the Ottoman Empire. However, following the outbreak of World War One in the summer of , the Ottomans made the fateful decision of siding with Germany and the other Central Powers against Britain, France and Russia.
This article explores bereavement and mourning in the post-war Middle East with a focus on official state efforts to commemorate the conflict. This article addresses resistance to military mobilization in the Ottoman Empire during the Great War, with a specific focus on desertion. This article provides an overview of commemorations of the centenary of the First World War in Turkey. Ottoman children were not simply passive victims or casualties; they were engaged in every facet of total war. The First World War required the most comprehensive mobilization of men and resources in the history of the empire.
I found it has a profound effect on the geopolitics of today. To understand what is happening in the Middle East today, one has to go all the way back to the start of World War I. At the start of that war, many empires were competing for world power and trading dominance:. Because these empires were starting to industrialize and create arms races, there were several treaties and alliances that were formed prior to World War I that played a significant role during and after the war:. October 8, - Austria-Hungary formally annexes Bosnia-Herzegovina, which is north of Montenegro on the map. August 4, - Germany invades Belgium and the British declare war on Germany.