The History Book Club - NATIVE AMERICANS: FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR Showing 1-37 of 37
French & Indian/Seven Years' War: 1760-1763
The conflict was played out in Europe, India, and North America. The English did ultimately come to dominate the colonial outposts, but at a cost so staggering that the resulting debt nearly destroyed the English government. It was that debt that caused the escalation of tensions leading to the Revolutionary War. Parliament was desperate to obtain two objectives; first, to tax the colonies to recover monies expended on the battle over North America, and second to restore the profitability of the East India Company in an effort to recover monies spent on the battle over India. The French and Indian War, as it was referred to in the colonies, was the beginning of open hostilities between the colonies and Gr. England and France had been building toward a conflict in America since These efforts resulted in the remarkable growth of the colonies from a population of , in , to 1.
Having taken Quebec in the fall of , British forces settled in for the winter. Commanded by Major General James Murray, the garrison endured a harsh winter during which over half of the men suffered from disease. As spring approached, French forces led by the Chevalier de Levis advanced down the St. Lawrence from Montreal. Besieging Quebec, Levis hoped to re-take the city before the ice in the river melted and the Royal Navy arrived with supplies and reinforcements. On April 28, , Murray advanced out of the city to confront the French but was badly defeated at the Battle of Sainte-Foy. Driving Murray back into the city's fortifications, Levis continued his siege.
Vaudreuil and Montcalm were minimally resupplied in , as the British blockade of the French coastline limited.
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The French and Indian War: A Summary
At the peace conference, the British received the territories of Canada from France and Florida from Spain, opening the Mississippi Valley to westward expansion. During and , the French won a string of victories, defeating in quick succession the young George Washington , Gen. In , Governor Shirley, fearing that the French settlers in Nova Scotia Acadia would side with France in any military confrontation, expelled hundreds of them to other British colonies; many of the exiles suffered cruelly. The tide turned in because William Pitt, the new British leader, saw the colonial conflicts as the key to building a vast British empire. Borrowing heavily to finance the war, he paid Prussia to fight in Europe and reimbursed the colonies for raising troops in North America. In July , the British won their first great victory at Louisbourg, near the mouth of the St. Lawrence River.
It determined control of the vast colonial territory of North America. The French and Indian War began over the specific issue of whether the upper Ohio River valley was a part of the British Empire , and therefore open for trade and settlement by Virginians and Pennsylvanians, or part of the French Empire. Behind this issue loomed an infinitely larger one, however: which national culture was to dominate the heart of North America. Settlers of English extraction were in a preponderance in the coveted area, but French exploration, trade, and alliances with Native Americans predominated. British territorial claims rested upon explorations of the North American continent by John Cabot in the latter part of the 15th century.