Fathers and Sons by Ivan TurgenevBazarov—a gifted, impatient, and caustic young man—has journeyed from school to the home of his friend Arkady Kirsanov. But soon Bazarov’s outspoken rejection of authority and social conventions touches off quarrels, misunderstandings, and romantic entanglements that will utterly transform the Kirsanov household and reflect the changes taking place across all of nineteenth-century Russia.
Fathers and Sons enraged the old and the young, reactionaries, romantics, and radicals alike when it was first published. At the same time, Turgenev won the acclaim of Flaubert, Maupassant, and Henry James for his craftsmanship as a writer and his psychological insight. Fathers and Sons is now considered one of the greatest novels of the nineteenth century.
A timeless depiction of generational conflict during social upheaval, it vividly portrays the clash between the older Russian aristocracy and the youthful radicalism that foreshadowed the revolution to come—and offers modern-day readers much to reflect upon as they look around at their own tumultuous, ever changing world.
Introduction by Jane Costlow
Fathers and Sons Character List
These notes were contributed by members of the GradeSaver community. Nikolai came from a family where his father wanted him to have a military career but he was sent to university because of an injury. His first wife died after ten years of marriage and Nikolai decided to name his estate after her. Nikolai is described as a kind man, and his kindness led him to be taken as a fool by the peasants under him. Nikolai loves Arkady above everything and he cares a lot about his opinion. He is malleable and becomes quickly attached to Bazarov who becomes his mentor. Just like Bazarov, Arkady falls in love with Anna and even becomes a little jealous when he sees that Anna likes Bazarov more than him.
All rights reserved. Topics Character Roles Protagonist, Antagonist Tools of Characterization. The Mover and the ShakerIt's easy to bash Bazarov. He thinks he's better than everyone else.
Arkady Kirsanov has just graduated from the University of Petersburg and returns with a friend, Bazarov, to his father's modest estate in an outlying province of Russia. His father, Nikolay, gladly receives the two young men at his estate, called Marino, but Nikolay's brother, Pavel, soon becomes upset by the strange new philosophy called " nihilism " which the young men, especially Bazarov, advocate. Nikolay, initially delighted to have his son return home, slowly begins to feel uneasy, and a certain awkwardness in his regard, as it emerges that Arkady's views, much influenced by Bazarov, are radical and make his own beliefs feel dated. Nikolay has always tried to stay as current as possible, by doing things such as visiting his son at school so the two can stay as close as they are, but this in Nikolay's eyes has failed. To complicate this, the father has taken a servant, Fenechka, into his house to live with him and has already had a son by her, named Mitya.
Nikolai Petrovitch Kirsanov A small landowner in a rural part of Russia who has attempted to keep up with modern ideas. Arkady Nikolayevitch Kirsanov His son, who has been studying in St. Petersburg and who has come under the influence of a new philosophy called nihilism. Pavel Petrovitch Kirsanov Nikolai's brother, who believes strongly in preserving the aristocratic mode of life. Fenichka Nikolai's housekeeper, the mother of his young son, and eventually his wife.
Song learning is hypothesized to allow social adaptation to a local song neighbourhood. Maintaining social associations is particularly important in cooperative breeders, yet vocal learning in such species has only been assessed in systems where social association was correlated with relatedness. Thus, benefits of vocal learning as a means of maintaining social associations could not be disentangled from benefits of kin recognition. We assessed genetic and cultural contributions to song in a species where social association was not strongly correlated with kinship: the cooperatively breeding, reproductively promiscuous splendid fairy-wren Malurus splendens. We found that song characters of socially associated father—son pairs were more strongly correlated and thus songs were more similar than songs of father—son pairs with a genetic, but no social, association i.