Galileo Galilei (Author of Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems)Galileo Galilei was a Tuscan (Italian) physicist, mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher who played a major role in the Scientific Revolution. His achievements include improvements to the telescope and consequent astronomical observations, and support for Copernicanism. Galileo has been called the father of modern observational astronomy, the father of modern physics, the father of science, and the Father of Modern Science. The motion of uniformly accelerated objects, taught in nearly all high school and introductory college physics courses, was studied by Galileo as the subject of kinematics. His contributions to observational astronomy include the telescopic confirmation of the phases of Venus, the discovery of the four largest satellites of Jupiter, named the Galilean moons in his honour, and the observation and analysis of sunspots. Galileo also worked in applied science and technology, improving compass design.
Galileos championing of Copernicanism was controversial within his lifetime. The geocentric view had been dominant since the time of Aristotle, and the controversy engendered by Galileos presentation of heliocentrism as proven fact resulted in the Catholic Churchs prohibiting its advocacy as empirically proven fact, because it was not empirically proven at the time and was contrary to the literal meaning of Scripture. Galileo was eventually forced to recant his heliocentrism and spent the last years of his life under house arrest on orders of the Roman Inquisition.
Italian astronomer Galileo Galilei dies in Italy at age The first person to use a telescope to observe the skies, Galileo discovered the moons of Jupiter, the rings of Saturn, sunspots and the solar rotation. After Galileo published his confirmation that the Earth orbits the Sun, in favor of the Copernican system, he was charged with heresies ideas that ran counter to teaching of the church by the Inquisition—the legal body of the Catholic church. He was found guilty in and sentenced to life imprisonment but due to his age and poor health he was allowed to serve out his sentence under house arrest. But if you see something that doesn't look right, click here to contact us!
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Galileo studied speed and velocity , gravity and free fall , the principle of relativity , inertia , projectile motion and also worked in applied science and technology, describing the properties of pendulums and " hydrostatic balances", inventing the thermoscope and various military compasses , and using the telescope for scientific observations of celestial objects. His contributions to observational astronomy include the telescopic confirmation of the phases of Venus , the observation of the four largest satellites of Jupiter , the observation of Saturn's rings , and the analysis of sunspots. Galileo's championing of heliocentrism and Copernicanism was controversial during his lifetime, when most subscribed to geocentric models such as the Tychonic system. He spent the rest of his life under house arrest. Galileo became an accomplished lutenist himself and would have learned early from his father a scepticism for established authority,  the value of well-measured or quantified experimentation, an appreciation for a periodic or musical measure of time or rhythm, as well as the results expected from a combination of mathematics and experiment. Three of Galileo's five siblings survived infancy.
Galileo , in full Galileo Galilei , born February 15, , Pisa [Italy]—died January 8, , Arcetri, near Florence , Italian natural philosopher, astronomer, and mathematician who made fundamental contributions to the sciences of motion , astronomy , and strength of materials and to the development of the scientific method. His formulation of circular inertia , the law of falling bodies , and parabolic trajectories marked the beginning of a fundamental change in the study of motion. His insistence that the book of nature was written in the language of mathematics changed natural philosophy from a verbal, qualitative account to a mathematical one in which experimentation became a recognized method for discovering the facts of nature. Finally, his discoveries with the telescope revolutionized astronomy and paved the way for the acceptance of the Copernican heliocentric system , but his advocacy of that system eventually resulted in an Inquisition process against him. Galileo was a natural philosopher, astronomer, and mathematician who made fundamental contributions to the sciences of motion , astronomy , and strength of materials and to the development of the scientific method.