The Chinese Language: Fact and Fantasy by John DeFrancisTHE CHINESE LANGUAGE: Fact and Fantasy, by the legendary pedagogue of Chinese John DeFrancis, is an imprecisely titled book. What DeFrancis seeks to show here is that the Chinese character writing system is inefficient, unnecessary, and detrimental to mass literacy.
DeFrancis begins with an introductory essay (which he later revealed to be a joke) about a World War II committee of Asian scholars attempting to design a character-based writing system for Western peoples once they were subjugated by the unstoppable Japanese. After this brief piece, the reader will already see that characters are unsuitable for most of the worlds languages.
The first part, the only portion of the book which is dedicated to the Chinese language in the sense of speech, elucidates the division language -> regionalect -> dialect. In the second part, DeFrancis tries to reach a conclusion on what exactly characters are, as diverse terminology from pictograph to ideograph has been used. The third part, Demythifying Chinese Characters is the real meat of the book. While hard to believe now, in previous centuries European intellectuals were enamoured with characters and even called them a universal writing system. DeFrancis slays the universality myth, and the closely related emulatability myth, mainly based on the fact that literacy is so hard to acheive, as well as on the fact that no phonetic information can be had. The idea that Chinese is monosyllabic is shown as a myth, since the spoken language has and depends upon polysyllabic constructions to avoid redundacy and only in the thoroughly artificial written language could one see monosyllabism. The myth that characters are indispensable is revealed, since pinyin works well once the spoken language is used as a basis for writing, and only the use of an artificial literary language hampers alphabetization. Students of Chinese will already understand this, for reading a transcript of a conversation in pinyin presents little confusion. Finally, if anyone out there really still believes that characters could be successul, DeFrancis shows how terrible their impact has been on mass literacy in China compared to Japan. An interesting aside in this chapter is that even Japanese literacy isnt what its cracked up to be. The fourth and final part discusses historical steps for reform of the spoken and written languages.
Some knowledge of Chinese, ideally Mandarin (Putonghua) is necessary to fully enjoy this book, although DeFrancis tries hard to make it accessible to a general audience. DeFrancis was one of the great Western scholars of Chinese, and from a three-year sojourn in China in his youth he had a great love of the Chinese people and their culture. If he argues against the use of characters, his opinions are worth hearing out, and students and scholars of Chinese may be quite interested by this work.
An Introduction to Probability and Stochastic Processes
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Schrijf een review. E-mail deze pagina. Co-auteur: Selvamuthu Dharmaraja. Samenvatting An easily accessible, real-world approach to probability and stochastic processes Introduction to Probability and Stochastic Processes with Applications presents a clear, easy-to-understand treatment of probability and stochastic processes, providing readers with a solid foundation they can build upon throughout their careers. With an emphasis on applications in engineering, applied sciences, business and finance, statistics, mathematics, and operations research, the book features numerous real-world examples that illustrate how random phenomena occur in nature and how to use probabilistic techniques to accurately model these phenomena. The authors discuss a broad range of topics, from the basic concepts of probability to advanced topics for further study, including Ito integrals, martingales, and sigma algebras. Also, a related website features additional exercises with solutions and supplementary material for classroom use.
In the last eight chapters, we have studied probability theory, which is the mathematical study of random phenomena. A random phenomenon occurs through a stochastic process. In this chapter we introduce stochastic processes that can be defined as a collection of random variables indexed by some parameter. The parameters could be time or length, weight, size, etc. The theory of stochastic processes turns out to be a useful tool in solving problems belonging to diverse disciplines such as engineering, genetics, statistics, economics, finance, etc. This chapter discusses Markov chains, Poisson processes, and renewal processes. In the next chapter, we introduce some important stochastic processes for financial mathematics, Wiener processes, martingales, and stochastic integrals.
It seems that you're in Germany. We have a dedicated site for Germany. These notes were written as a result of my having taught a "nonmeasure theoretic" course in probability and stochastic processes a few times at the Weizmann Institute in Israel.
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Introduction to Probability and Stochastic Processes with Applications presents a clear, easy-to-understand treatment of probability and stochastic processes, providing readers with a solid foundation they can build upon throughout their careers. With an emphasis on applications in engineering, applied sciences, business and finance, statistics, mathematics, and operations research, the book features numerous real-world examples that illustrate how random phenomena occur in nature and how to use probabilistic techniques to accurately model these phenomena. Additional topical coverage includes:.
Geared toward college seniors and first-year graduate students, this text is designed for a one-semester course in probability and stochastic processes. Topics covered in detail include probability theory, random variables and their functions, stochastic processes, linear system response to stochastic processes, Gaussian and Markov processes, and stochastic differential equations. Here at Walmart. Your email address will never be sold or distributed to a third party for any reason. Due to the high volume of feedback, we are unable to respond to individual comments.