Earth 4.5 billion years ago

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earth 4.5 billion years ago

The Story of Earth: The First 4.5 Billion Years, from Stardust to Living Planet by Robert M. Hazen

Earth evolves. From first atom to molecule, mineral to magma, granite crust to single cell to verdant living landscape, ours is a planet constantly in flux. In this radical new approach to Earth’s biography, senior Carnegie Institution researcher and national bestselling author Robert M. Hazen reveals how the co-evolution of the geosphere and biosphere—of rocks and living matter—has shaped our planet into the only one of its kind in the Solar System, if not the entire cosmos.
With an astrobiologist’s imagination, a historian’s perspective, and a naturalist’s passion for the ground beneath our feet, Hazen explains how changes on an atomic level translate into dramatic shifts in Earth’s makeup over its 4.567 billion year existence. He calls upon a flurry of recent discoveries to portray our planet’s many iterations in vivid detail—from its fast-rotating infancy when the Sun rose every five hours and the Moon filled 250 times more sky than it does now, to its sea-bathed youth before the first continents arose; from the Great Oxidation Event that turned the land red, to the globe-altering volcanism that may have been the true killer of the dinosaurs. Through Hazen’s theory of “co-evolution,” we learn how reactions between organic molecules and rock crystals may have generated Earth’s first organisms, which in turn are responsible for more than two-thirds of the mineral varieties on the planet—thousands of different kinds of crystals that could not exist in a nonliving world.
The Story of Earth is also the story of the pioneering men and women behind the sciences. Readers will meet black-market meteorite hawkers of the Sahara Desert, the gun-toting Feds who guarded the Apollo missions’ lunar dust, and the World War II Navy officer whose super-pressurized “bomb”—recycled from military hardware—first simulated the molten rock of Earth’s mantle. As a mentor to a new generation of scientists, Hazen introduces the intrepid young explorers whose dispatches from Earth’s harshest landscapes will revolutionize geology.
Celebrated by the New York Times for writing “with wonderful clarity about science . . . that effortlessly teaches as it zips along,” Hazen proves a brilliant and entertaining guide on this grand tour of our planet inside and out. Lucid, controversial, and intellectually bracing, The Story of Earth is popular science of the highest order.

 
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The History of Earth - How Our Planet Formed - Full Documentary HD

The history of Earth concerns the development of planet Earth from its formation to the present day. The geological time scale GTS , as defined by international convention, [3] depicts the large spans of time from the beginning of the Earth to the present, and its divisions chronicle some definitive events of Earth history. In the graphic: Ga means "billion years ago"; Ma , "million years ago".
Robert M. Hazen

History of Earth

Planet Earth doesn't have a birth certificate to record its formation, which means scientists spent hundreds of years struggling to determine the age of the planet. So, just how old is Earth? By dating the rocks in Earth's ever-changing crust, as well as the rocks in Earth's neighbors, such as the moon and visiting meteorites, scientists have calculated that Earth is 4. Related: How Big is Earth? Scientists have made several attempts to date the planet over the past years.

Pinpointing the beginning of life on Earth is tricky. The fossil record only goes so far. While geologists have uncovered hints of life dating back 3. While scientists know that our planet first formed about 4. The intervening years between our planet's conception and evidence of Archea is coined the Hadean , after Hades, the Greek god of the underworld. So scientists' only clues about this period are hidden in tiny crystals called zircons , nearly indestructible baubles that form in magma, Julia Rosen writes for Science Magazine.

The solar system used to be a much rougher place than it is today. That much we already knew, but a new model developed by an international team proposes a considerably more violent early life for our planet than anyone suspected. This new study describes an Earth that was frequently struck by massive asteroids that melted and mixed the surface multiple times, ultimately shaping the planet we know today.
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Giant asteroids reshaped Earth 4 billion years ago

The age of the Earth is estimated to be 4. Following the development of radiometric age-dating in the early 20th century, measurements of lead in uranium-rich minerals showed that some were in excess of a billion years old. It is hypothesised that the accretion of Earth began soon after the formation of the calcium-aluminium-rich inclusions and the meteorites. Because the time this accretion process took is not yet known, and predictions from different accretion models range from a few million up to about million years, the difference between the age of Earth and of the oldest rocks is difficult to determine. It is also difficult to determine the exact age of the oldest rocks on Earth, exposed at the surface, as they are aggregates of minerals of possibly different ages. Studies of strata - the layering of rocks and earth - gave naturalists an appreciation that Earth may have been through many changes during its existence. These layers often contained fossilized remains of unknown creatures, leading some to interpret a progression of organisms from layer to layer.

This website uses cookies for user login, personalised content and statistics. By continuing to browse the site, you are agreeing to our use of cookies - if you wish to opt-out of non-essential cookies, you may do so below. Plate tectonics on Earth began around 2. Exactly when the phenomenon began in the 4. The latest findings , published in the journal Nature , place the start of tectonics pretty much midway between the two estimates. To arrive at their result, scientists led by geologist Robert Holder from Johns Hopkins University, US, turned to metamorphic rocks — a large class of minerals that are the result of tectonic recycling. Recommended Does a planet need plate tectonics to develop life?

3 thoughts on “The Story of Earth: The First 4.5 Billion Years, from Stardust to Living Planet by Robert M. Hazen

  1. The history of Earth concerns the development of planet Earth from its formation to the present Earth formed around billion years ago, approximately one- third the age of the universe, by . About Ga, the nebula began a contraction that may have been triggered by the shock wave from a nearby supernova.

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