Philippine History And Government by Sonia M. ZaideThe pre-colonial government of the Filipinos
It is said that people deserve the kind of government they have. In the case of the Filipino people, they went through a lot of stages, both forceful and peaceful, in their quest for political maturity and independence.
The barangay was the Filipinos earliest form of government. It was an independent settlement consisting of thirty to one hundred families usually situated along a river bank or at the mouth of a river spilling out to the sea. The term barangay was derived from the Malay word barangay or balangay, which means sailboat. The barangays were used to transport the early Filipinos and their cargoes to the various sections of the Philippine archipelago.
Each barangay was ruled by a datu or village chief who was also known as raha or rajah. Some datus were more powerful than others and, consequently, were duly respected and exercise tremendous influence. The political development of the archipelago was such that there was no national or central government yet. In other words, there was no datu strong enough to consolidate considerable power and to unite the archipelago into one nation.
The primary duty of the datu was to rule and govern his subjects and to promote their well-being. In times of peace, he was the chief executive, legislator, and judge. And, in times of conflict, he was the supreme commander of the warriors. In Western Visayas it was not uncommon for the datu to be the babaylan, as well. The very influence and mystical ability of the babaylan, especially if he was a man, made him the most likely candidate for community leadership.
According to Renato Constantino (1975), the datu was not an absolute ruler. The scope of his authority was given limits by a traditional body of customs and procedures. His usefulness to the community earned him respect so that services were willingly rendered to him. He could be replaced if, for some reasons, he was found incapable of leading the community and his position was weakened. The subjects, on their part, served the datu during wars and voyages. Moreover, they paid tributes or buwis to their datu in the form of farm products.
The datu usually obtained his position by inheritance. However, one could also become a datu through display of his prowess and valor in battle, or by proving his leadership skills or other traits useful for the barangays survival.
In matters of succession in the vent of the datus death, the first son usually succeeded him. If the first son died without leaving an heir, the second son succeeded as datu. In the absence of any male heir, the eldest daughter could become a chieftain. This clearly indicates that womens rights and abilities were recognized during pre-Spanish times. If a datu died without any heir, the people of the barangay choose a man to become the new chieftain on the basis of his wisdom, wealth and physical strength.
1968 World Series Game 7, Tigers at Cardinals, October 10
The defending world champion St. Louis Cardinals once again dominated the National League on the way to their second consecutive Fall Classic as Bob Gibson remained at the top of the list of National League pitchers. As was becoming the standard, pitching dominated the World Series contest and nothing would change in Both aces met in Game 1 as Gibson threatened to break Sandy Koufax's Series record by striking out thirteen Tiger batters through seven innings. McLain did not fare as well and surrendered for three, fourth-inning runs by the Cards, who got a run-scoring single from Mike Shannon and a two-run single from Julian Javier thanks to an error by Willie Horton. In the seventh, reliever Pat Dobson, working his second inning, yielded a bases-empty home run to Lou Brock.
Louis Cardinals four games to three. The baseball season, known as the "Year of the Pitcher", was the Detroit Tigers ' 68th since they entered the American League in , their eighth pennant , and third World Series championship. Denny McLain had a remarkable season in , as he went 31—6 with a 1. He is the only pitcher since to win 30 games in a season. Beleaguered by legal and financial troubles in later years, McLain was at his best in Perhaps worn down by pitching innings during the regular season, McLain's World Series performance was not as stellar.
Louis Cardinals , with the Tigers winning in seven games for their first championship since , and the third in their history. The Tigers came back from a 3—1 deficit to win three in a row, largely on the arm of MVP Mickey Lolich , who as of [update] remains the last pitcher to earn three complete-game victories in a single World Series. The three World Series wins were duplicated by Randy Johnson in , but Johnson started only two of his games. In his third appearance in the Series, Lolich had to pitch after only two days' rest in the deciding Game 7, because regular-season game winner Denny McLain was moved up to Game 6 — also on two days' rest. In Game 5, the Tigers' hopes for the title would have been very much in jeopardy had Bill Freehan not tagged out Lou Brock in a home plate collision, on a perfect throw from left fielder Willie Horton , when Brock elected not to slide and went in standing up. He was the winning pitcher in Games 1 and 4. In Game 1, he threw a shutout, striking out a Series record of 17 batters, besting Sandy Koufax 's record by two.