The Nāṭya śāstra of Bharatamuni by Bharata-MuniThe Natya Shastra (Sanskrit: नाट्य शास्त्र, Nāṭyaśāstra) is an ancient Indian treatise on the performing arts, encompassing theatre, dance and music. It was written during the period between 200 BCE and 200 CE in classical India and is traditionally attributed to the Sage Bharata.
The Natya Shastra is incredibly wide in its scope. While it primarily deals with stagecraft, it has come to influence music, classical Indian dance, and literature as well. It covers stage design, music, dance, makeup, and virtually every other aspect of stagecraft. It is very important to the history of Indian classical music because it is the only text which gives such detail about the music and instruments of the period. Thus, an argument can be made that the Natya Shastra is the foundation of the fine arts in India. The most authoritative commentary on the Natya Shastra is Abhinavabharati by Abhinavagupta.
Natya Sastra by Bharata Muni
Natyashastra , in full Bharata Natyashastra, also called Natyasastra , detailed treatise and handbook on dramatic art that deals with all aspects of classical Sanskrit theatre. It is believed to have been written by the mythic Brahman sage and priest Bharata 1st century bce —3rd century ce. Its many chapters contain detailed treatments of all the diverse arts that are embodied in the classical Indian concept of the drama , including dance, music, poetics, and general aesthetics. Its primary importance lies in its justification of Indian drama as a vehicle of religious enlightenment. Info Print Cite. Submit Feedback.
The composition date of Natyashastra is unknown, estimates vary The author of the Natya Shastra is unknown, and the Hindu.
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The myth of the origin of theatre in India, told at the very beginning of the Natyashastra , or the Drama Manual , shows the central role of theatre and dance in Indian culture. Natya , the art of theatre including dance , was the work of God Brahma, the creator, who was asked to give mankind a fifth Veda , which, unlike the four earlier Vedas, could be understood by everyone, even those who did not know Sanskrit i. Thus Brahma created the Natya Veda , with the assistance of other gods. Natya was then taught by God Brahma to the mythic sage Bharata , who is said to have recorded this teaching in the Natyashastra. The origin of the book is thus shrouded in mythology, but the work itself is indeed living reality. The instructions of the Natyashastra became established through centuries of practical theatre work. The compilation of this treatise dates back most probably to the second century AD, although the tradition formulated in it was older.
P Raja Chennai March 11, am. All the three works form the encyclopaedia of Indian civilisation. Both the works leave no stone unturned in matters concerning body and mind. All the three works speak of the glory of India and proclaim to the world that Indian education did not stop with the scriptures and the philosophies. External evidence gives us a clue that the Sanskrit work was available to Mahakavi Kalidasa, as he refers to its author in his lyrical work Vikramorvasi.
The text consists of 36 chapters with a cumulative total of poetic verses describing performance arts. The subjects covered by the treatise include dramatic composition, structure of a play and the construction of a stage to host it, genres of acting, body movements, make up and costumes, role and goals of an art director, the musical scales, musical instruments and the integration of music with art performance. Combined with an epic story, tending to virtue, wealth, joy and spiritual freedom, it must contain the significance of every scripture, and forward every art. The text has survived into the modern age in several manuscript versions, wherein the title of the chapters vary and in some cases the content of the few chapters differ. The author of the Natya Shastra is unknown, and the Hindu tradition attributes it to the Rishi sage Bharata.