A brief history of racism

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a brief history of racism

Racism: A Short History by George M. Fredrickson

Are antisemitism and white supremacy manifestations of a general phenomenon? Why didnt racism appear in Europe before the fourteenth century, and why did it flourish as never before in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries? Why did the twentieth century see institutionalized racism in its most extreme forms? Why are egalitarian societies particularly susceptible to virulent racism? What do apartheid South Africa, Nazi Germany, and the American South under Jim Crow have in common? How did the Holocaust advance civil rights in the United States?

With a rare blend of learning, economy, and cutting insight, George Fredrickson surveys the history of Western racism from its emergence in the late Middle Ages to the present. Beginning with the medieval antisemitism that put Jews beyond the pale of humanity, he traces the spread of racist thinking in the wake of European expansionism and the beginnings of the African slave trade. And he examines how the Enlightenment and nineteenth-century romantic nationalism created a new intellectual context for debates over slavery and Jewish emancipation.

Fredrickson then makes the first sustained comparison between the color-coded racism of nineteenth-century America and the antisemitic racism that appeared in Germany around the same time. He finds similarity enough to justify the common label but also major differences in the nature and functions of the stereotypes invoked. The book concludes with a provocative account of the rise and decline of the twentieth centurys overtly racist regimes--the Jim Crow South, Nazi Germany, and apartheid South Africa--in the context of world historical developments.

This illuminating work is the first to treat racism across such a sweep of history and geography. It is distinguished not only by its original comparison of modern racisms two most significant varieties--white supremacy and antisemitism--but also by its eminent readability.
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Racism in the United States: By the Numbers

A Brief History of Jim Crow

The typical story about race in the U. These include the genocide of Native Americans and the continued breaking of numerous treaties with Native American nations; internment of American citizens of Japanese descent during World War II though not German Americans , constitutional encoding of enslavement of Africans and others until the passage of the 13th Amendment, the post 13th Amendment imposition of Jim Crow and Sundown laws, and racial profiling of Latinos and African Americans and other people of color that continues today. The typical historical story also does not acknowledge the impact of these policies and laws today, specifically in how communities of color fare in basic areas such as education, housing, etc. Knowing our history is a critical component for understanding racial inequities and structural racism. This section provides timelines from several sources acknowledging key events and decisions in the history of racism. Racial Equity tools is brought to you by:. History is a Weapon.

Jump to navigation. It has been part of the American landscape primarily since the European colonization of North America beginning in the 17th century. The following are a list of just a few and their experiences. Europeans believed the original inhabitants of America were heathens and savages who needed to be civilized through Christianity and European culture. The long-term effects, among others, of this treatment include the fact that today, Native Americans have the highest suicide rate of any group in the United States, according to the National Institute of Mental Health. Racism against African-Americans : many of the Africans brought to America starting in the 17th century arrived as slaves, kidnapped from their homelands in various parts of Africa. A number of them were known to be royalty and literate.

Are antisemitism and white supremacy manifestations of a general phenomenon? Why didn't racism appear in Europe before the fourteenth century, and why did it flourish as never before in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries? Why did the twentieth century see institutionalized racism in its most extreme forms? Why are egalitarian societies particularly susceptible to virulent racism? How did the Holocaust advance civil rights in the United States? With a rare blend of learning, economy, and cutting insight, George Fredrickson surveys the history of Western racism from its emergence in the late Middle Ages to the present.

Fact Sheet 6 | Racism: A Brief History. Roots of Racism. Whilst racism is partly a result of fear and ignorance, the origins of racism are to be found in history.
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Roots of Racism

Whilst racism is partly a result of fear and ignorance, the origins of racism are to be found in history. Slavery was not an invention of the middle ages — it had existed for more than a thousand years — but it started to become a more organised trade towards the end of the fourteenth century, when the Europeans began to take people from Africa against their will. The slave trade , originally developed because of the growing demand for sugar, which lasted in Britain for about years. Irish merchants were part of this trade. By the early eighteenth century, Britain was one of the richest slave trading nations in the world, with large numbers of slaves being transported from African and Asian colonies to Europe and America. Ships left Bristol, Liverpool and London carrying textiles, gunpowder, silk and other goods. These were then traded in Africa for slaves.

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